Bullfrogs can shed disproportionately large amounts of Bd into the environment acting as a “super-spreader”. They often host intense infections while suffering minimal consequences from the pathogen. This is an example of ______.
Frogs are generally __-selected.
How would you model a frog population that breeds once per year?
A) Age-structured population model
B) Logistic growth model
C) Discrete-time model
D) Exponential growth model
Community-level trophic cascades ____________.
A) do not alter ecosystem function.
B) tend to be more important in aquatic vs. terrestrial systems.
C) tend to be more important in heterogeneous vs. homogenous systems.
D) tend to be more important in complex vs. simple food webs
What is not an example of a trophic cascade?
A) A decrease in kelp abundance following a decrease in sea urchin predators
B) An increase in aspen saplings after the reintroduction of grey wolves.
C) An increase in predators after an increase in herbivores due to an increase in plant abundance.
D) The decimation of tropical rainforest understory in areas without predators.
A cow consumes carbon by eating plants, digests the plant, and exhales carbon dioxide. What step in the carbon cycle does this represent?
Fill in the blanks. When conditions are not conducive to ________ organic material can be subject to ___________.
A) assimilation, erosion
B) decomposition, fossilization
C) weathering, respiration
D) sedimentation, fixation
What types of organisms are likely to contribute most to respiration, decomposition, and excretion?
A) Fungi and microbes
B) Vertebrate animals
Why do logged tropical rain forest soils typically have nutrient-poor soils?
A) Tropical bedrock contains little phosphorous.
B) Logging results in soil temperatures that are
lethal to nitrogen-fixing bacteria.
C) Most of the nutrients in the ecosystem are removed in the harvested timber.
D) The cation exchange capacity of the soil is reversed as a result of logging.
Carbon enters all food webs through _____, and is released back to the atmosphere or ocean via _____.
A) heterotrophs; cellular respiration
B) autotrophs; cellular respiration
C) heterotrophs; photosynthesis
D) autotrophs; decomposition
Find the answers and more review questions on Quizlet: https://quizlet.com/373049510
Gross primary productivity____.
A) is the energy available to the consumers in an ecosystem
B) does not vary among ecosystems
C) is the rate at which solar energy is captured in sugar molecules during photosynthesis
D) is the energy used only for metabolism and cellular respiration
When precipitation reaches Earth's surface, it may ______.
B) moves along the surface as runoff
C) percolate into the ground
D) A, B, and C
The total amount of photosynthesis that happens in a given system can be referred to as __________.
A) net primary production (NPP).
B) gross primary production (GPP).
C) net ecosystem exchange (NEE).
D) net autotrophy (NA).
The use of the standing biomass of primary producers to estimate NPP would be most problematical when _______.
A) the growth rate of primary producers is very rapid
B) primary producer tissues that die decompose rapidly
C) primary producer tissues are rapidly consumed by herbivores
D) A and B
E) B and C
Which statement is False?
A) Energy transfers between trophic levels are inefficient.
B) All of the individual organisms in a trophic will level get eaten by organisms in the next level up.
C) About 10% of the energy that is stored as biomass in one trophic level ends up stored as biomass in the next trophic level.
D) After a certain number of trophic levels there is too little energy flow to support a population at a higher level.
In general, the species richness on an island can be predicted by:
A) Island temperature regime and shape of the shoreline
B) Island size and shape of the shoreline
C) Island size and distance from the source species pool
D) Distance from source species pool and substrate type
Which metacommunity paradigm is most applicable at when the proportion dispersing is very low?
B) Mass effects
C) Patch dynamic
D) Neutral model
Which metacommunity paradigm is most applicable when proportion dispersing is very high?
B) Mass effects
C) Patch dynamic
D) Neutral model
Forms of stability in communities
A previously occupied area which is recolonized following a disturbance is an example of __________.
A) Primary succession
B) Secondary succession
C) A climax community
D) Both A & B
Dwarf lupines were the first plants to colonize the pumice plains after the eruption of Mt. St. Helens. These plants trapped seeds and detritus and increased the nitrogen content of the soil allowing other plants to get established. This is an example of:
D) Secondary succession
Plants with bacterial symbionts that fix _______ were important players in _______ stages of succession on Mt St Helens.
A) phosphorus; early
B) phosphorus; late
C) sulfur; early
D) nitrogen; early
A forest community has reestablished itself after an ice storm damaged most, but not all, of the trees in one area. Which type of succession best describes the reestablishment of the community after the storm?
Suppose that a late succession plant that is surrounded by early succession plants will grow at a rate of 0.7 cm per day. If the early succession plants are removed experimentally, the late succession plants are observed to grow at a rate of 0.6 cm per day. This experiment shows that the early succession plants have a _______ effect on the late succession plants, and this observation is most consistent with the _______ model of succession.
A) positive; facilitation
B) positive; tolerance
C) positive; inhibition
D) negative; facilitation
Suppose that a late succession plant that is surrounded by early succession plants grows at a rate of 0.5 cm per day. If the early succession plants are removed experimentally, the late succession plants are observed to grow at a rate of 0.9 cm per day. This experiment shows that the early succession plants have a ______ effect on the late succession plants, and this observation is most consistent with the _______model of succession.
A) negative; inhibition
B) negative; facilitation
C) positive; facilitation
D) positive; tolerance
Environmental filters played a more important role in determining community composition in which type of pond?
A) Permanent ponds
B) Drought ponds
C) Equally important in both pond types
Why was there more variation in community composition among permanent ponds?
A) Higher rates of dispersal
B) Stronger species interactions
C) Differences in the identity of immigrating species
D) Differences in the regional species pool
The environmental filter is more closely associated with the __________, the biotic interactions "filter" is more closely associated with the ________.
A) Fundamental niche; realized niche
B) Realized niche; fundamental niche
What is not true of species richness?
A) It is the number of different species in a particular community.
B) It is the number of individuals in a particular community
C) It is lower near the poles
D) It is higher in areas near the equator
Kelp create environments that allow the survival of other organisms that make up the kelp forest community. What type of species is kelp?
A) Keystone species
B) Foundation species
D) Competitive species
The vertical zonation of barnacles in the rocky intertidal zone of Scotland was not caused by ____.
A) predation by snails
B) tolerance levels to desiccation
C) competition for space
D) competition for food
Communities that have the same diversity, but low similarity ________________.
A) Differ in evenness
B) Differ in species richness
C) Share many of the same species
D) Share few of the same species
What is the primary difference between interaction webs and food webs?
A) Interaction webs include more trophic levels.
B) Interaction webs include fewer trophic levels.
C) Interaction webs do not consider primary producers, whereas food webs do.
D) Interaction webs include non-trophic interactions; food webs do not.
Types of Mutualisms
Mutualism cannot be ____________.
A) facultative for each of the two partner species
B) detrimental to one of the two partner species
Which statement about mutualism is incorrect?
A) Mutualisms not only confer benefits but inflict costs.
B) Mutualisms cannot be understood in isolation from their ecological contexts.
C) Mutualists are always highly specialized
D) Mutualisms vary greatly in time and space.
What is the difference between symbiosis and mutualism?
A) Symbiosis is a close, long-term interaction between two different species and mutualism is a type of symbiosis where only one partner generally benefits from the interaction.
B) Symbiosis is a close, long-term interaction between two different species and mutualism is a type of symbiosis where both partners generally benefits from the interaction.
C) Mutualism is a close, long-term interaction between two different species and symbiosis is a type of mutualism where both partners generally benefits from the interaction.
D) Mutualism is a close, long-term interaction between two different species and symbiosis is a type of mutualism where both partners are harmed by the interaction.
Which of the following is an example of a mutualism in which transportation is exchanged for nutrition?
Which statement about mutualisms is generally true?
A) Both partners' fitness increases the same amount as a result of the relationship.
B) Partners join mutualisms for altruistic reasons.
C) Conflicts of interest are rare in mutualisms.
D) Mutualisms often impose costs on the partners
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