Immune systems are one way organisms defend themselves against exploiters. The ability to develop antibodies for particular parasites/pathogens could be seen as an example of a(n) ______ defense.
Many species of butterflies are noxious to predators. They also have bright red coloration that indicates to the potential predators that they are unpleasant or even harmful to eat. This is an example of _______ coloration.
If we define herbivores as organisms that consume plant or algal material, then herbivores are ______________
C) neither predators nor parasites
D) either predators or parasites
In the Lotka‒Volterra predator‒prey model, the parameter a represents
A) the birth rate of prey.
B) the population growth rate of prey in the absence of predators.
C) the efficiency with which prey biomass is converted into predator offspring.
D) the capture efficiency of prey by predators.
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