Cytokines in immune response
In general, the species richness on an island can be predicted by:
A) Island temperature regime and shape of the shoreline
B) Island size and shape of the shoreline
C) Island size and distance from the source species pool
D) Distance from source species pool and substrate type
Which metacommunity paradigm is most applicable at when the proportion dispersing is very low?
B) Mass effects
C) Patch dynamic
D) Neutral model
Which metacommunity paradigm is most applicable when proportion dispersing is very high?
B) Mass effects
C) Patch dynamic
D) Neutral model
Forms of stability in communities
A previously occupied area which is recolonized following a disturbance is an example of __________.
A) Primary succession
B) Secondary succession
C) A climax community
D) Both A & B
Dwarf lupines were the first plants to colonize the pumice plains after the eruption of Mt. St. Helens. These plants trapped seeds and detritus and increased the nitrogen content of the soil allowing other plants to get established. This is an example of:
D) Secondary succession
Plants with bacterial symbionts that fix _______ were important players in _______ stages of succession on Mt St Helens.
A) phosphorus; early
B) phosphorus; late
C) sulfur; early
D) nitrogen; early
A forest community has reestablished itself after an ice storm damaged most, but not all, of the trees in one area. Which type of succession best describes the reestablishment of the community after the storm?
Suppose that a late succession plant that is surrounded by early succession plants will grow at a rate of 0.7 cm per day. If the early succession plants are removed experimentally, the late succession plants are observed to grow at a rate of 0.6 cm per day. This experiment shows that the early succession plants have a _______ effect on the late succession plants, and this observation is most consistent with the _______ model of succession.
A) positive; facilitation
B) positive; tolerance
C) positive; inhibition
D) negative; facilitation
Suppose that a late succession plant that is surrounded by early succession plants grows at a rate of 0.5 cm per day. If the early succession plants are removed experimentally, the late succession plants are observed to grow at a rate of 0.9 cm per day. This experiment shows that the early succession plants have a ______ effect on the late succession plants, and this observation is most consistent with the _______model of succession.
A) negative; inhibition
B) negative; facilitation
C) positive; facilitation
D) positive; tolerance
Many types (we will look closely at examples of 4):
Receptor Tyrosine Kinases (RTKs):
Tyrosine Kinase Associated Receptors:
Well studies system for controlling motility of bacteria.
Somewhat similar to tyrosine kinase associated receptors, in that the receptor has no kinase activity.
Memorize the ligands, receptors and components of the four signaling pathways described above!
For review questions and answers: https://quizlet.com/388776589
Environmental filters played a more important role in determining community composition in which type of pond?
A) Permanent ponds
B) Drought ponds
C) Equally important in both pond types
Why was there more variation in community composition among permanent ponds?
A) Higher rates of dispersal
B) Stronger species interactions
C) Differences in the identity of immigrating species
D) Differences in the regional species pool
The environmental filter is more closely associated with the __________, the biotic interactions "filter" is more closely associated with the ________.
A) Fundamental niche; realized niche
B) Realized niche; fundamental niche
Classic G protein signaling pathways (there are THREE):
Activation of Protein kinase A (PKA).
At least five mechanisms limit calcium levels from remaining high for too long in cells, including:
What is not true of species richness?
A) It is the number of different species in a particular community.
B) It is the number of individuals in a particular community
C) It is lower near the poles
D) It is higher in areas near the equator
Kelp create environments that allow the survival of other organisms that make up the kelp forest community. What type of species is kelp?
A) Keystone species
B) Foundation species
D) Competitive species
The vertical zonation of barnacles in the rocky intertidal zone of Scotland was not caused by ____.
A) predation by snails
B) tolerance levels to desiccation
C) competition for space
D) competition for food
Communities that have the same diversity, but low similarity ________________.
A) Differ in evenness
B) Differ in species richness
C) Share many of the same species
D) Share few of the same species
What is the primary difference between interaction webs and food webs?
A) Interaction webs include more trophic levels.
B) Interaction webs include fewer trophic levels.
C) Interaction webs do not consider primary producers, whereas food webs do.
D) Interaction webs include non-trophic interactions; food webs do not.
Cell signaling is required for multicellular organisms to exist.
Cell signaling is the production of molecules by one cell and their detection by one or more others.
Overview of signaling systems:
There are many functions of signaling networks, the main ones are
Types of Mutualisms
Mutualism cannot be ____________.
A) facultative for each of the two partner species
B) detrimental to one of the two partner species
Which statement about mutualism is incorrect?
A) Mutualisms not only confer benefits but inflict costs.
B) Mutualisms cannot be understood in isolation from their ecological contexts.
C) Mutualists are always highly specialized
D) Mutualisms vary greatly in time and space.
What is the difference between symbiosis and mutualism?
A) Symbiosis is a close, long-term interaction between two different species and mutualism is a type of symbiosis where only one partner generally benefits from the interaction.
B) Symbiosis is a close, long-term interaction between two different species and mutualism is a type of symbiosis where both partners generally benefits from the interaction.
C) Mutualism is a close, long-term interaction between two different species and symbiosis is a type of mutualism where both partners generally benefits from the interaction.
D) Mutualism is a close, long-term interaction between two different species and symbiosis is a type of mutualism where both partners are harmed by the interaction.
Which of the following is an example of a mutualism in which transportation is exchanged for nutrition?
Which statement about mutualisms is generally true?
A) Both partners' fitness increases the same amount as a result of the relationship.
B) Partners join mutualisms for altruistic reasons.
C) Conflicts of interest are rare in mutualisms.
D) Mutualisms often impose costs on the partners
A) reproduce on more rapid timescales than macroparasites
B) live longer than macroparasites
C) rarely complete their life cycle within a single host
D) lay eggs or larvae into the environment
Host tolerance ___________.
A) reduces the probability that a host is infected
B) minimizes the damage done but without impeding transmission of the pathogen
C) reduces pathogen replication within the host
D) increases the speed of pathogen clearance
Virulence is a measure of ________.
B) parasite density
C) a decrease host fitness
D) a reduction of host reproduction
In disease ecology, the basic reproductive ratio (R0) describes ______________.
A) The number of secondary infections resulting from a single infection when the host population is entirely susceptible
B) The number of secondary infections resulting from a single infection when the host population includes resistant individuals
C) The influence of herd immunity on disease proliferation
D) The effect of pathogen infection on host fitness
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